Cancel Leaf: A leaf which has been pasted in a book to replace
one removed after the book was bound. The new leaf (frequently the title page) contains whatever changes were
necessary and is glued onto a narrow stub left on purpose after the old leaf has been excised.
Case/Case Bound: The covers of a hardback book consisting of the
entire outer cover including the boards and spine. The term originates from Case Binding which was
introduced in the early 19th century and enabled the mechanization of bookbinding. Traditionally, binding
was done by hand. The boards were attached to the
Textblock by cords, and then covered with
leather or paper (See Figure 20). The new
method (See Figure 8) allowed mass production by manufacturing the entire outer covers separately which
were then glued to textblocks. Still used today with minor variations, the process entails an adhesive
being applied to the spine of a textblock, a strip of gauze (stretch out an inch or so past the spine)
placed over the adhesive, a strip of thin cardboard glued over the gauze on the spine, and the cardboard
glued to the back of whatever is serving as the spine cover. The inside of the front and back covers of
the case are then glued to one side of the gauze extensions and the front and back endpapers to the other side.
The gauze extensions become the book's Hinges.
Chromolithography: A process for creating color prints and
book illustrations which evolved from the original process of lithography discovered in the late 1790s.
Lithography started with a flat stone which had been ground and polished and provided the surface on which
an image was engraved. Alternately ink-repellent and ink-receptive solutions were applied to the stone and
transferred to paper to create the black and white prints which were then hand-colored. Chromolithography
was discovered in 1837 and was a process of superimpositioning a series of at least three colors using a
separate stone for each color (See Figure 10). Each color is printed separately on the same sheet by
maintaining precise alignment. As many as 38 successive proof prints from 19 separate stones were used
at the height of its achievements. Chromolithographs are identified by the distinct randomly placed
irregular dots visible on close inspection. Modern photolithographic methods produce uniform dots.
(See Figure 9).
Closed Tear: A tear in which no paper is missing, i.e. the two
sides can be fitted so closely together as to render the tear almost invisible.
See Open Tear
Cloth: A book bound in cloth-covered boards. The cloth is
usually a type of cotton or linen, but other textiles have been used. The cloth is given a protective
coat of, or "filled" with, starch or an acrylic resin.
Coated Paper: Paper with a thin coat of chalk or china
clay bound to its surface, giving the paper more weight and a smooth, less ink absorbent finish. It
is often used for the illustrative Plates in books.
Because it produces sharper, brighter images with better reflectivity the uncoated paper favored for printing text.
Some books, as well as magazines, however, are printed entirely on coated stock. The coating is usually glossy,
but can also be matte or dull.
Cocked: Describes a book which has departed from its proper
alignment, i.e. that of a 6-faced object all of whose faces are parallelograms lying in pairs of parallel
planes; or in simpler terms, a box. A book can be cocked in three ways. You have a Cocked Spine if a book
viewed from either its top or bottom edge reveals a tilted spine rather than one at right angles to the
covers. The tilt will cause one of the covers to appear to be longer than the other, and the end of the
Textblock will also appear slanted.
A book is said to have Spine Slant or Spine Lean if one cover appears to
be higher than the other when looking at one of the covers while holding the book vertically. The ends of the
foreedge (See Figure 5) of the textblock will
also appear slanted. The third state of cockiness is when both the previous defects are present. This is
usually called Spine Twist because both the spine and the top & botom edges appear to be are twisted.
(See Figure 11).
Collation: (1) In descriptive bibliography, the detailed inspection
and description of the non-binding portion of a book regarding the presence and the sequential position of each
page or leaf, including both Arabic and Roman numbered pages, unnumbered pages or leaves, etc. For book collectors,
the relevance of giving a book's collation relates to either establishing a book's
Priority among various
Editions, or determining if a book is
complete as originally issued. The notations for collations get rather complex sometimes
but a rather simple example would be:
"[i-v], vi, [vii-viii], , 10-172, blank" which states that between the endpapers the book begins with 5
unnumbered "[ ]" preliminary pages, has a page numbered "vi" followed by 2 unnumbered preliminary pages,
9 unnumbered text pages, text pages numbered 10 thru 172, and ends with a blank page.
(2) Sometimes used to refer to the process of collecting and ordering the
before they are sewn together and bound so that the leaves of the book will have the correct sequence.
Colophon: A statement found on a page at the back of a book
following the end of the text giving information about the physical printing and sometimes the history of
the book. It usually includes the name of the printer, the type of paper and typeface used, but may state
the number of books printed in the edition, etc. Early books often had a colophon instead of a title page.
Colophons are used in modern books along with a title page either by publishers of finely printed books or
those who wish to give the appearance of the former.
Comb Binding: A book bound by a tubular plastic into which a
series of teeth have been cut. The teeth fit through small rectangular holes punched through the left edges
of the covers & leaves of the book. (See Figure 12).
Covers: Whatever has been used to cover the
Textblock. Typically, it is paper,
boards, or boards covered with cloth, leather or paper. The term is often used ambiguously to references
the front and back Panels of a book. Although strictly speaking it should include the
Spine cover as well.
Cuts: Smaller than full-page illustrations and figures printed
amid the text on a page of text. Also called Text Figures. Distinguished from
Plates which are illustrations having their
own page with no text other than a possible caption.
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