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Sample Autograph Signature:
'Irish novelist and poet; one of the most influential and innovative writers of the 20th century James Augustine Aloysius Joyce ( - ) was born and raised in Dublin. His father, who had a drinking problem, barely supported his children having failed in several careers. His father went bankrupt in , and lost his job as a tax collector in . Joyce began his education in at a boarding school, but left after his father's bankruptcy. He attended Belvedere College in Dublin (-), then enrolled in the University College Dublin in to study English, French and Italian. Active in theatrical and literary circles, he wrote at least 2 plays (since lost) and his first published work, an essay which appeared in Fortnightly Review in . Many of his lyric poems in Chamber Music () date to this period. Graduating in , Joyce briefly lived in Paris in near starvation to allegedly to study medicine, but returned to his mother's deathbed. During in Dublin, he made a meager living reviewing books and teaching while carousing, then permanently left Ireland for Z�rich with Nora Barnacle whom he would later marry. He didn't have the job he thought he had at the Z�rich's Berlitz Language School, but finally found a position with the Berlitz in Pola, Austria (now Croatia) in October where he taught until March when the Austrians expelled all aliens. He moved back to Trieste where their first child was born, then briefly had a bank job in Rome until early when illness forced him back to Trieste where his daughter was born. He taught privately and at Berlitz, but avoided complete poverty through his borrowing skills. Between and , he made several trips to Dublin in his continuing fight over the publication of Dubliners and a failed attempt to open a cinema. In the next few years, however, he saw the publication of Dubliners in ; wrote and published A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Manin ; wrote his only play, Exiles (), during -; and began work on Ulysses (22) in March . At the onset of WW I in , he moved to Z�rich where they lived in poverty until Ezra Pound introduced English publisher Harriet Shaw Weaver to Joyce's work which lead her to become the first of Joyce's patrons in . After the war he returned to Trieste briefly before moving to Paris in 20. Ulysses began to appear serially in the Little Review (New York) in , but was censored in 20 and had to be published in Paris. In , Joyce began Finnegans Wake (), which he finished before returning to Z�rich in . Joyce's revolutionary contributions to the novel include the use of interior monologue, experimental language, and complex structures of multi-level puns and interconnected symbolic parallels between mythology, philosophy, theology history, and literature. When Joyce was asked why Finnegans Wake was written in such a difficult style, he replied: 'To keep the critics busy for three hundred years.' And he will.'
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